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Diabetic
Take whole grain, high fibre diet with plenty of vegetables and moderate quantity of seasonal fruits
Small frequent meals
Avoid junk food/fast food which are high in calories and trans fat
Maintain ideal body weight
Avoid mental stress
Regular physical activities
Regular check for control of blood pressure and cholesterol
Quit smoking and control alcohol intake
Maintain blood sugar levels in the normal range
Periodic screening for complications of diabetes
Definition
Often referred to as Diabetes Mellitus by doctors, Diabetes is mainly a lifestyle disease and a long term condition wherein a person has high blood glucose levels (blood sugar) either due to inadequate production of insulin in the body by the pancreas or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin or both. Patients with high blood sugar levels will experience frequent urination, excessive thirst and hunger.

There are three types of diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes wherein the body does not produce insulin at all. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Type 2 Diabetes wherein the body does produce insulin but the cells do not utilize the same (insulin resistance). Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Gestational diabetes affects women during their pregnancy, when blood glucose levels are high and insulin produced is not enough.
FAQ
Is having snacks between meals good or bad? If you feel the blood sugar level is low between meals, have snacks that combine carbohydrates, protein and fat to satisfy your hunger. Including fruits to your snacks is a good habit.
How does fibre-rich food help control blood sugar? Though fibre is also a carbohydrate, it does not ignite your blood sugar level as body does not digest fibre, but at the same time, it helps you feel full. By eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, beans, and whole grain foods such as whole wheat bread, helps you get carbohydrate to control your blood sugar.
Is it important to keep regular timings for meals? Yes, it is. Keeping blood sugar levels steady is a primary concern for every diabetes patient. Only a regular meal habit helps you achieve it. If you skip a meal, your blood sugar levels may go down, making you vulnerable for related symptoms such as feeling shaky, nauseous, or dizzy. If you over eat, it may lead to high blood sugar. Maintain a regular diet with meals every four to five hours and have snacks in between, if you need to.
Is sugar-free food healthy for diabetes patients? It is again a wrong concept. Sugar-free does not often mean carbohydrate-free or calorie free. Most of the sugar substitutes comprise carbohydrates, thus making it comparatively more dangerous than the food with actual sugar. Take a dieticians opinion or check the carbohydrate count before opting for any so-called sugar-free food products.
How can I always know when my blood sugar levels are getting high? Diabetes is a silent disease in nature. Many a times, the patient feels fine even in high blood sugar conditions but silently damaging your body. Do not completely rely on how you feel when it comes to monitoring your health. Use a blood sugar monitor device at home and make self monitoring a habit.
People with diabetes can eat as many fruits as they want. Is it right? Yes, fruits are a key part of a healthy diet. But fruits do contain carbs -- some more than others -- and eating too many carbs could cause your blood sugar to get too high. As with any food, pay attention to the amount you're eating.
COPD
Smoking kills Smoking causes 90 percent of COPD cases and continued smoking will aggravate the condition further. Quit smoking today to slow the progression of COPD and increase your lifespan.
Proper medication You need to be careful with your medicine dosages and timings. Miss one dose and that could be fatal for you. Also take all vaccinations on time so as to keep infections and other illnesses at bay.
Adequacy of inhaler technique The corner stone of treatment of COPD is a proper inhaler technique. Incorrect technique will prevent you from receiving the optimal benefits from your medications. Consult your doctor to know more.
Bust the stress The more you worry, the more you will suffer from shortness of breath. Try relaxation techniques to diffuse stress. Eat well, sleep well and have a great support system of friends and family in order to avoid any sudden deterioration of your health due to COPD.
Walk of hope Physical activity will improve your general condition and help cope with COPD better. A 2-4 mile walk twice a week can reduce your chances of hospitalization from severe COPD episodes and extent your lifespan.
Be fit and fine Regular physical activity, exercises involving your upper and lower limbs will lead to an increase in your physical capacity, decrease in anxiety about breathlessness, greater independence in daily activities, reduced fatigue and improved quality of life.
You are what you eat It is important to have a healthy diet especially when shortness of breath and fatigue disallow you to have proper meals. Have a high protein diet, avoid junk food, fast food and cold drinks to ensure you stay healthy and sound.
Sleep well, live well Developing good sleeping habits like a sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine at night, exercising later in the day, no late night working or watching television and restricting you bedroom to sleeping can help in better management of COPD.
The trick is to keep breathing Ensure you regularly do breathing exercises to improve the utilization of oxygen by your body. It will strengthen your heart, lower your blood pressure and improve blood circulation. You will feel more energetic and relaxed helping you sleep well and improving your quality of life.
Periodic monitoring a must Your spirometry scores will help in determining the progression of COPD and the best way to treat it. So go in for regular checkups so that based on the results your doctor can make changes to your treatment plan.
Definition
COPD is a progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe and by ‘progressive’ we mean this disease gets worse over time and thus management becomes a priority. COPD can cause coughing with increased production of phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, among other symptoms. If you have COPD, you also may have colds or the flu (influenza) often. One of the leading causes of COPD is smoking and second hand smoking. Other causes include air pollution, chemical fumes, dust, etc.

COPD does not have a cure at present, but making a few changes in your lifestyle will help you lead a better life and relieve some of your symptoms. A pulmonologist, one who specializes in treatment of lung disorders, can help you in your COPD treatment which may include:

Making lifestyle changes like quitting smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke and places with dust, fumes, or other toxic substances that you may inhale. Since you may not be able to eat well due to shortness of breath and fatigue, the nutritional needs of your body will not be met, making you prone to infections and worsen your present condition. Consult your doctor and devise a diet plan along with nutritional supplements so that you stay healthy and strong. Talk to your doctor about the activities that are safe for you and do not aggravate your condition. Although it may be difficult for you to be active, a certain amount of physical activity is necessary to strengthen the muscles that help you breathe and improve your overall wellness. Make sure you take your medications as instructed by your doctor. Bronchodilators and/or inhaled steroids can be prescribed depending on the severity of your condition. Taking flu shots on time, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy and surgeries like bullectomy, lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplant can help to an extent in management of COPD.
FAQ
What is COPD? COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a progressive lung disease in which the airways in the lungs get damaged and or blocked making it difficult to inhale and exhale.
What are its symptoms and causes? How can I prevent it? Symptoms include recurring cough, coughing up mucus, shortness of breath and feeling of tightness in your chest. It can be caused by cigarette smoking, secondhand smoke, long-term exposure to industrial dust and chemical fumes, air pollution, inherited genetic factors and preterm birth that leads to lung damage (neonatal chronic lung disease). In order to prevent COPD stay away from smoking, avoid secondhand smoke, lung irritants like industrial dust and chemical fumes, maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle.
How is COPD diagnosed? A breathing test called spirometry will be conducted by your doctor to check the functioning of your lungs. This test is easy and painless. This test will determine how much air the lungs can hold and how fast the air is blown out of the lungs. Other tests, such as bronchodilator reversibility testing, a chest X-ray, and arterial blood gas test, may also be conducted for further conclusions.
What are the treatment options for COPD? There is no cure for COPD, but it can be controlled through certain lifestyle changes. As each person is different, the treatment suiting each is also determined using information related to symptoms being mild, moderate or severe. Treatments include medication, pulmonary or lung rehabilitation, oxygen treatment, and surgery. There are also treatments to manage complications or a sudden onset of symptoms.
What medication is used to treat COPD? Bronchodilators and inhaled steroids are the two types of medications used to treat COPD. Bronchodilators relax the muscles around the airways, open them and make it easier to breathe. People with mild COPD take bronchodilators using an inhaler only when needed. Those with moderate or severe COPD may need more regular treatment. Inhaled steroids also are used for people with moderate or severe COPD in order to reduce swelling in their airways.
What is oxygen treatment? Due to COPD oxygen levels in your body may be low and with help of this treatment the amount of oxygen in your lungs is increased, so that you can breathe better and live longer. Oxygen can be delivered through, oxygen concentrators, oxygen gas cylinders and liquid oxygen. You don't have to stay at home or in a hospital to use oxygen, as these systems are portable and you can do your daily task while using them.
What is pulmonary rehabilitation? Pulmonary rehabilitation will help you do your daily tasks in a better way by reducing your symptoms, improving quality of life and encouraging to lead more active life. The Pulmonary rehabilitation program includes exercises that will help patients with COPD to build their physical fitness, improvise on their breathing techniques and strategies for living better with COPD. The program will comprise doctors, nurses, physical therapists, respiratory therapists, exercise specialists, and dietitians, in order to help better disease management and devise a treatment plan best suited for every individual.
What complications can arise out of COPD? Shortness of breath Frequent lung infections. Increased risk of osteoporosis, especially if you use oral corticosteroids. Weight problems. If chronic bronchitis is the main part of your COPD, you may need to lose weight. If emphysema is your main problem, you may need to gain weight and muscle mass. Heart failure affecting the right side of the heart. A collapsed lung where the lung structure is damaged and air may leak into the chest cavity. Sleep problems because you are not getting enough oxygen into your lungs.
When to call a doctor? Shortness of breath If you have moderate to severe difficulty breathing or breathing stops. Severe chest pain which is getting worse. If you cough up 0.5 cup or 120ml of blood. Are coughing more deeply or more often, especially if you see increase in mucus. Have increased swelling anywhere in your body. Have high fever. Show flu-like symptoms.
Can someone with COPD die? COPD is a disease which worsens with time. One can contract lung infections that can be fatal and if the lungs are weak, the heart is also affected. One may die if the lungs and heart are not able to function well and supply oxygen to the body’s organs and tissues, especially during the time of a complication like severe infection. Treatment for COPD may help prevent complications, prolong life, and improve a person's quality of life.
Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology is a branch of medicine which deals with the diagnosis and treatmeant of the diseases of the digestive system. These diseases usually affect the following organs; esophagus or the tube that delivers food from your mouth to the stomach; stomach, small intestine, large intestine also known as the colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, or pancreas.Hepatologyencompasses the study of the liver, pancreas, and biliary tree, and is traditionally considered a sub-specialty.The Institute of Liver and Gastro Sciences at Baby Memorial Hospital is best-of-its-kind in the country and offers a wide range of treatments and services for liver and gastrointestinal disorders.

Diseases that affect the above organs are listed below:

Esophagus and Stomach Achalasia In this condition the muscles in the lower part of the esophagus fail to relax, which prevents food from passing into the stomach.

Barrett’s Esophagus This is a condition where the normal lining of the esophagus changes to the type usually found in the intestines. Barrett’s Esophagus is a condition resulted due to chronic reflux of the stomach’s content into the esophagus.

Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer occurs in cells that line the inside of your esophagus – the tube that carries food from your mouth to the stomach.

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This condition starts at the cells that form the inside lining of your stomach, which can gradually grow into a tumor. This is a gradual disease, growing slowly over a period of time, but if diagnosed early, it has better chance of treatment and cure.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) GERD, a chronic digestive tract disease, occurs when the contents of the stomach and/or stomach acid flow back (reflux) into your food pipe (esophagus) which causes irritation in the lining of the esophagus. This mainly occurs due to the improper functioning of lower esophageal sphincter, a valve which opens to allow the food to pass into the stomach and prevent the reflux of the stomach contents in the esophagus.

Gastroparesis This is a condition where the natural movement of the stomach’s muscles which propel food trough the digestive tract, either functions poorly or not at all. This can prevent your stomach from emptying fully and also interfere with normal digestion process, causing nausea, vomiting, fluctuations in the blood sugar levels and nutrition.

Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic ulcers are open sores that usually develop on the inside lining of your stomach, upper portion of your intestine or the esophagus. There are three types of peptic ulcers, namely; gastric ulcers (develop on the inside of your stomach); duodenal ulcers (develop on the inside of the upper portion of your small intestine also known as the duodenum) and esophageal ulcers (develop on the inside of the esophagus).

Swallowing Disorders Also known as dysphagia, you may take more time and effort to swallow both, solid or liquids. It can be associated with pain, while in some cases, swallowing may become impossible. Occasionally it can occur due to improper chewing or eating too fast, but persistent dysphagia indicates a serious medical condition warranting treatment.

Chronic constipation Chronic constipation is a condition where bowel movements are infrequent and there is difficulty in passage of stools. This condition may persist for several weeks or even longer. Even though occasional constipation is common, some people experience chronic constipation that can interfere with their ability to go about their daily tasks. Chronic constipation may also cause excessive straining to have a bowel movement and other signs and symptoms.

Liver Alcoholic Liver Disease This condition occurs due to excessive intake of alcohol. Any type of alcohol can cause disease. The liver is inflamed due to the alcohol intake and overtime scarring and cirrhosis can also occur, which is the final stage of alcoholic liver disease.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Liver Cancer) Hepatocellular Carcinoma is a form of liver cancer which occurs in the main type of liver cell known as hepatocyte and accounts for the most cases of liver cancer. Causes of this include alcohol abuse, autoimmune diseases of the liver, Hepatitis B or C virus infection, inflammation of the liver that is long-term (chronic) and iron overload in the body also known as hemochromatosis.

Fatty liver Non-alcoholic fatty liver is used to describe the accumulation of fat in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol. This disease usually, for most people, causes no signs and symptoms and no complications either. Although in some cases, this condition can lead to inflammation and scarring of the liver. At its most severe, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to liver failure.

Portal Hypertension This is a condition where pressure in the vein that carries blood from digestive organs to the liver, also known as the portal vein, increase to the point that large veins tend to develop across the esophagus and the stomach so as to get around the blockage in the blood flow through the liver. These large veins are fragile and can bleed easily causing complications due to internal bleeding.

Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition of the liver, commonly caused by a viral infection. There are five types of hepatitis causing viruses namely, A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis A: Derives from infection caused by hepatitis A virus and is transmitted by consuming food or water contaminated by the feces from a person who is infected with the disease. Hepatitis B: Derives from infection caused by hepatitis B virus and is transmitted through punctured wounds or contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, saliva, or semen. Injection drug use, having sex with an infected partner, or sharing razors with an infected person increase your risk of getting hepatitis B. Hepatitis C: Derives from the hepatitis C virus and is transmitted through direct contact with infected body fluids, typically through injection drug use and sexual contact. Hepatitis D: Also known as the delta hepatitis, it is a serious liver disease derived from the hepatitis D virus. It is transmitted through puncture wounds or contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D is a rare form of hepatitis that occurs in conjunction with hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis E: Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is mainly found in areas with poor sanitation and is typically caused by ingesting fecal matter.

Pancreas and Biliary Tract Acute Pancreatitis This condition refers to the inflammation of the pancreas, which causes sudden and severe abdominal pain. The pancreas is located at the back of the mid-abdomen and is responsible for producing digestive juices and certain hormones like insulin. This condition can develop as a side effect of gallstones or moderate to heavy alcohol consumption over a period of years.

Chronic Pancreatitis In this condition, the ability of your pancreas to digest food and regulate blood sugar is totally impaired due to inflammation. Unlike acute pancreatitis, this condition does not get better with time and is usually a permanent one, though pain and symptoms can be managed with proper treatment and medications.

Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This type of cancer starts in the bile ducts, which are thin tubes that reach from the liver to the intestine. Bile ducts move fluid called bile from the liver to the small intestine, where it helps in digesting fat in the food. It can happen in the parts of the bile ducts that are outside or inside the liver.

Gallstone Disease Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder, which holds bile (a fluid helpful in digestion). Gallstones range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Some people develop just one gallstone, while others develop many gallstones at the same time.

Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) Sphincter of Oddi is a muscle which controls the flow of digestive juices and other chemicals within the digestive tract, liver and pancreas. When this muscle is working properly, it opens to allow bile and pancreatic juice to flow through and then closes again. However, in a condition called SOD, the sphincter muscle does not open when it should, thus preventing bile and pancreatic juice from flowing through and causing a backup of digestive juices, leading to bouts of severe pain in the abdomen.

Pancreatic cancer This condition occurs in the tissues in your pancreas, which secretes fluids that aid in digestion and hormones like insulin that help regulate the metabolism of sugars. If cancer develops in pancreas, it will require surgical removal, which is the only chance of cure.

Jaundice Jaundice is a medical term used to describe the yellowing of the skin and eyes. This condition forms when there is too much bilirubin (a yellow pigment that is formed by the breakdown of dead red blood cells in the liver) in your system. Jaundice may indicate a serious problem with the function of your liver, gallbladder, or pancreas.

Small and Large Intestine Colorectal Cancer This type of cancer starts in the colon or rectum, which are located in the lower part of the digestive system. Most colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp, which may form on the inner wall of the colon or rectum. Some polyps become cancer over time. Colorectal cancer can be prevented if polyps are identified and removed in the early stages.

Crohn’s Disease This condition is part of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which causes inflammation in the lining of your digestive tract, leading to abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss and malnutrition. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue and it Crohn's disease can be both painful and debilitating, and sometimes may lead to life-threatening complications.

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) FAP is a rare, inherited condition that causes extra tissue called polyps to form in your colon and rectum. Polyps can also occur in the upper gastrointestinal tract, especially the upper part of your small intestine also known as the duodenum.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) IBS is a common condition affecting the colon or the large intestine. This usually causes cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea and constipation and needs long term management as it is a long term disease. Even though signs and symptoms are uncomfortable, IBS — unlike ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which are forms of inflammatory bowel disease — doesn't cause changes in bowel tissue or increase your risk of colorectal cancer.

Ulcerative colitis This is a chronic condition of the large intestine (colon), where in the lining of the colon is inflamed and develops tiny open sores, or ulcers, that produce pus and mucous. The combination of inflammation and ulceration can cause abdominal pain and frequent emptying of the colon. This condition is a result of an abnormal response by your body's immune system.

Most of the diseases that we treat at BMH are manageable, but it definitely has an adverse effect on the quality of life of the patient. We at BMH are committed to not only treat the disease, but also try to improve the quality of life of our patients with help of advanced technologies and clinical care. Facilities available at BMH are listed below.

Upper GI Endoscopy Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is a procedure where a gastroenterologist uses an endoscope (a long, flexible tube with a camera) to view the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus, the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. You will have to fast for at least four to eight hours to ensure your stomach is empty for the procedure. Anesthetic will be sprayed into your mouth so that your throat is numb, as the endoscope is inserted into your esophagus and down to the upper GI tract.

Colonoscopy Colonoscopy is the exam of the large intestine or the colon. This procedure uses a colonoscope, fitted with a tiny camera on the end, which is inserted into your colon from your rectum to view it from the inside. You will be given sedatives to relax during the procedure.

Sigmoidoscopy In this procedure, a sigmoidoscopeis used to see inside the sigmoid colon and rectum, which is the area of the large intestine nearest to the rectum. You will be given sedatives to relax during the procedure.

Endoscopic sclerotherapy In this procedure,a chemical called a sclerosantis injected directly into an enlarged vein or into the wall of the esophagus next to the enlarged veins. The substance causes inflammation of the inside lining of the vein, causing the vein to scar and collapse. This then forces blood to reroute through healthier veins.

Endoscopic variceal ligation In this procedure an enlarged vein or a varix in the esophagus is tied off or ligated by a rubber band and delivered via an endoscope.Varices develop due to portal hypertension and a major risk with them is bleeding. You will have to fast for at least four to eight hours to ensure your stomach is empty for the procedure. You will be given sedatives via IV to relax during the procedure.

Esophageal Dilatation In this procedure, a narrowed area of the esophagus is stretched or dilated using various techniques. It is usually performed as a part of a sedated endoscopy.

Esophageal stenting A stent is placed in the esophagus to keep a blocked area open. This makes it easy for the patient to swallow solids and liquids. Esophageal stents may be self-expandable metallic stents, or made of plastic, or silicone, and may be used in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy(PEG) In this procedure a tube called the PEG tube is passed into a patient's stomach through the abdominal wall. This helps in feeding the patient in cases where oral intake is not adequate (for instance, because of dysphagia or sedation).

ERCP ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure which detects the diseases of the liver, bile ducts and pancreas. Through an endoscope (fitted with a camera at its tip), the doctor can view the inside of the stomach and duodenum, and inject radiographic contrast into the bile ducts or pancreas duct to see them on radiographs. The procedure needs to be done on an empty stomach. Sedatives will be given to you to induce relaxation and sleepiness. A light local anesthesia will be administered to decrease the gag reflex.

Nasobiliary drainage This procedure makes use of nasobiliary catheters, which are simply long polyethylene tubes (twice the length of the endoscope), with multiple distal side holes. They are inserted into the bile ducts for effective drainage, with proximal end of the drain being shifted from mouth to the nose. A short plastic tube is passed through a nostril into the pharynx, and brought out through the mouth. The top of the biliary drain is then fed back through it; both are withdrawn at the nose until the drain lies straight in the pharynx.

Pancreatic stone removal and stenting Interventional endoscopy is used to treat patients with chronic pancreatitis to remove stones and provide relief. Also, stents are placed into the pancreatic ducts in order to clear blockage and provide drainage of pancreatic juice.

Other facilities available at BMH’s Institute of Liver and Gastro Sciences include: Biliary cytology; Fundal glue injection/ Heamoclip application/ Heater probe application; Polypectomy; CBD stone removal/ stenting;CBD stricture dilatation; Foreign body removal; Endoscopic Ryle’s tube placement, etc. Other services that we offerare expert management of GI disorders, hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases; OGD Scopy; sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.

The surgical procedures performed in this department can be broadly divided into:-
Hepatobiliary Surgery: Liver resections for Liver and Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stone-related Surgeries. Pancreatic Surgery: Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer, Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis. Colorectal Surgery: Surgery for Colorectal Cancer, Colonic Diverticulitis, Complex Fistulae, Piles and Inflammatory Bowel Disease like Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease. Esophago Gastric Surgery: For Esophageal and Gastric Cancers, GERD- Reflux disease and Hiatus Hernia.For Esophageal and Gastric Cancers, GERD- Reflux disease and Hiatus Hernia. Bariatric Surgery: for Morbid Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

Procedures Hepatic Resection Hepatic/liver resections are done commonly for liver tumors. It requires good preoperative planning, meticulous surgery and intensive postoperative care for good results. The following procedures are done regularly in the department.
Major Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular and Cholangiocarcinoma. Gall Bladder Cancer Surgery. Choledochal Cyst Surgery. Gall Bladder Stone Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy).

Pancreatic surgery: A good number of the pancreatic surgeries are done laparoscopically. WhipplesPancreaticoduodenectomy for Carcinoma Pancreas and Periampullary Carcinoma Frey’s Lateral Pancreatojejunostomy for Chronic Pancreatitis Distal and Median pancreatectomy Pancreatic Necrosectomy and surgery for Pseudocyst Luminal GI Surgery These procedures are done for lesions of Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine and Colon. Most of these procedures are done laparoscopically. They include

Thoraco-Laparoscopic Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer Laparoscopic Surgery for Achalasia Cardia Laparoscopic Fundoplication for Hiatus Hernia/ GERD Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer Small Bowel Resections/Strictureplasty All types of laparoscopic Colonic and Rectal Resections Lap. Restorative Proctocolectomy with Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis (IPAA) for Ulcerative Colitis / FAP Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Today, with sedentary lifestyle and bad food habits, obesity is a problem faced by many across age groups. Obesity leads to various health problems like Diabetes, Hypertension, Sleep Apnea, etc. Bariatric Surgery is an absolutely safe and secure method that gives quick results. This type of surgery actually minimizes the size of the stomach so that intake is lessened as one gets the filled feeling with just a little food.

Advanced GI Laparoscopy This unit is a specialisedcentre for all GI laparoscopic procedures. Surgeries commonly performed in the department are:

Laparoscopic Anterior Resection for Carcinoma Rectum Laparoscopic APR for Anal Canal Tumours Laparoscopic Colonic Resections (Hemicolectomy, Segmental Colectomy) Laparoscopic Restorative Proctocolectomy with IPAA for Polyposis Coli and Ulcerative colitis Thoraco-Laparoscopic Surgery for Esophageal Cancer Laparoscopic Surgery for Achalasia Cardia (Cardiomyotomy) Laparoscopic Fundoplication for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Laparoscopic Surgery for Inguinal Hernia (Lap TEP & TAPP repair) Laparoscopic Mesh Repair for Incisional & Umbilical Hernia Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic CBD exploration for CBD Stone Laparoscopic Surgery for Choledochal Cyst Laparoscopic Gastrectomy Laparoscopic Resection for Liver Lesions Diagnostic Laparoscopy Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis Laparoscopic Appendicectomy Laparoscopic Bariatric/Obesity Surgery Laparoscopic Splenectomy Laparoscopic WhipplesPancreatoduodenectomy Laparoscopic Pancreatectomy Laparoscopic Pancreatic Necrosectomy Equipment / Facility The operations suites are well equipped with all most modern facilities. This state of art theatre complex is well equipped to perform all major GI surgeries like Liver Resections, Liver Transplantation, Pancreatic Resections and all advanced GI Laparoscopic Surgeries.

High Definition 3-Chip Camera system from Karl-Storz Ultrasonic Dissector for Liver Resection from Stryker (CUSA) Gen X system of Harmonic Scalpel and Enseal of Ethicon Force Triad-Ligasure Vessel Sealing System of Covidien Intraoperative Ultrasound from Aloka Argon Plasma Coagulator from ERBE
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
GERD, a chronic digestive tract disease, occurs when the contents of the stomach and/or stomach acid flow back (reflux) into your food pipe (esophagus) which causes irritation in the lining of the esophagus. This mainly occurs due to the improper functioning of lower esophageal sphincter, a valve which opens to allow the food to pass into the stomach and prevent the reflux of the stomach contents in the esophagus.

Symptoms Heartburn: A burning sensation in your chest, which sometimes may spread to your throat, leaving a sour taste in your mouth. Chest pain: A sharp or tender pain in the chest mimicking heart-related problems. Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing solids as well as liquids. Dry cough: Especially at night time. Hoarseness: Sore throat can occur due to acid reflux Sensation of a lump in your throat.
Causes A circular band of muscle at the end of the esophagus called the lower esophageal sphincter opens to allows food and water to pass while swallowing. If this valve does not function properly or weakens, then stomach acid can flow back into the esophagus causing heartburn and inflammation. Over time, the inflammation can cause the esophageal lining to weaken, causing complications such as bleeding due to erosion, esophageal narrowing leading to difficulty in swallowing food. Barrett's esophagus wherein the tissue lining the lower esophagus changes.Barrett's esophagus may later turn into cancer

Treatment Treatment for GERD usually commences with over the counter antacid medication, which helps neutralize the stomach acid. There are another set of medications for reducing the production of acid to provide relief for longer duration. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are stronger blockers of acid production and allow time for damaged esophageal tissue to heal. Overuse of any kind of medication can have side effects like diarrhea or constipation. If none of the medications work your doctor may recommend surgery. The surgery of GERD is routinely done in the Department of Gastrointestinal surgery. It is a Laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery to strengthen the Gastroesophageal valve. It is painless and requires only 3-4 days hospitalization. You can resume all your daily activities, two weeks after the procedure and 90% of the patients will be able to stop all medications after the surgery.

Lifestyle changes Lifestyle changes will help in dealing with GERD: Watch your weight: The heavier you are, the more pressure on your abdomen, pushing up your stomach and causing acid to reflux into your esophagus. So maintain a healthy weight with help of a healthy diet and regular exercise. Avoid tight-fitting clothing: Clothes that fit tightly around your waist put pressure on your abdomen and the lower esophageal sphincter. Watch what you eat: It is best to avoid food that will trigger heartburn like fatty or fried foods, alcohol, mint, tomato sauce, garlic, onion and caffeine. Small meals: Eat small meals so that your stomach is not overburdened. Don't lie down after a meal: It is necessary to wait for at least three hours after eating before you lie down or go to sleep. Elevate your head while sleeping: Put gravity to work if heartburn is a regular problem for you. Either insert cement blocks or wood under the feet of your bed or insert a wedge between your mattresses so that there is some elevation of your body from waist up. Raising your head with additional pillows is usually not effective. No smoking: Smoking decreases the lower esophageal sphincter's ability to function properly.
Frequently asked questions What causes GERD? This mainly occurs due to the improper functioning of lower esophageal sphincter, a valve which opens to allow the food to pass into the stomach and prevents the reflux of the stomach contents in the esophagus.

What are the symptoms? Heartburn: A burning sensation in your chest, which sometimes may spread to your throat, leaving a sour taste in your mouth. Chest pain: A sharp or tender pain in the chest mimicking heart-related problems. Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing solids as well as liquids. Dry cough: Especially at night time. Hoarseness: Sore throat can occur due to acid reflux Sensation of a lump in your throat. What are my treatment options? Treatment for GERD usually commences with over the counter antacid medication, which helps neutralize the stomach acid. There are another set of medications for reducing the production of acid to provide relief for longer duration. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are stronger blockers of acid production and allow time for damaged esophageal tissue to heal. Overuse of any kind of medication can have side effects like diarrhea or constipation. If none of the medications work, your doctor may recommend surgery. Laparoscopic surgery is the best option for most patients.

I am pregnant and have terrible heartburn. Is there anything I can do to get relief? It is quite common to report heartburn, especially in the third trimester, because your digestive system works more slowly due to changing hormone levels. Also, your enlarged uterus crowds your stomach, pushing stomach acids upward into the esophagus. You should:
East small meals and eat them slowly. Make sure you don’t lie down immediately after eating. Avoid spicy, fried or foods that may aggravate heartburn further. Try to elevate yourself from waist up. Ask your doctor to give you antacids to regulate the stomach acid levels. should I eat/drink during a heartburn flare? During a heartburn flare avoid spicy and fried foods and make sure you eat/drink something that is soothing, along with medication. Food that you should consume are: alkaline water, baked meat, bananas, chamomile tea, coconut milk, manuka honey, melons, oatmeal and vegetables.

What complications can arise if I don’t treat GERD? Over time, the inflammation due to reflux of stomach acid can cause the esophageal lining to weaken, causing complications such as bleeding due to erosion, esophageal narrowing leading to difficulty in swallowing or Barrett's esophagus wherein the tissue lining the lower esophagus changes (a precancerous condition).

When there is a chronic acid reflux, the taste in my mouth goes bad. What causes this? If a bad taste in your mouth accompanies your heartburn, it could be a sign that something more serious than just heartburn. A thorough evaluation of the pH balance of your stomach is recommended. Visit your doctor today.

Incidents of heartburn occur more at night compared to daytime? This is nocturnal reflux, wherein the stomach acid is pushed upwards when you are in a lying position, usually during your sleep at night time. A comprehensive evaluation is needed immediately. Meanwhile try and keep yourself elevated from waist up and put gravity to work.

What are the changes I need to make in my lifestyle to deal with GERD in a better way? Lifestyle changes will help in dealing with GERD:

Watch your weight: the heavier you are, the more pressure on your abdomen, pushing up your stomach and causing acid to reflux into your esophagus. So maintain a healthy weight with help of a healthy diet and regular exercise. Clothes that fit tightly around your waist put pressure on your abdomen and the lower esophageal sphincter, aggravating the problem.Smoking decreases the lower esophageal sphincter's ability to function properly, so you will have to quit smoking immediately.

It is best to avoid food that will trigger heartburn like fatty or fried foods, alcohol, mint, tomato sauce, garlic, onion and caffeine. Eat small meals so that your stomach is not overburdened. It is necessary to wait for at least three hours after eating before you lie down or go to sleep.

Elevate your head while sleeping and put gravity to work if heartburn is a regular problem for you. Either insert cement blocks or wood under the feet of your bed or insert a wedge between your mattresses so that there is some elevation of your body from waist up. Raising your head with additional pillows is usually not effective.

What is Barrett's esophagus and how is it treated? This is a condition where the normal lining of the esophagus changes to the type usually found in the intestines. Barrett’s esophagus is a condition resulted due to chronic reflux of the stomach’s content into the esophagus. The treatment of Barrett's esophagus is similar to the treatment of reflux. You will have to make certain lifestyle changes like eating small meals, keeping your weight in check, avoiding certain foods, caffeine, wearing lose fitting clothes etc, along with using medications that will decrease acid production in the stomach. If not controlled with the above measures, you will have to undergo keyhole (Laparoscopic) surgery. Also once Barrett'sesophagus develop in the GERD, you will have to undergo repeated endoscopies once in every year to rule out cancer is not developing inside the body. Early detection of cancer is very important and if it is diagnosed in the first stage (which is the aim of periodic endoscopies), it can be completely cured with surgery.

Peptic ulcers
Peptic ulcers are open sores that usually develop on the inside lining of your stomach, upper portion of your intestine or the esophagus. There are three types of peptic ulcers, namely;

Gastric ulcers: These ulcers develop on the inside of your stomach. Duodenal ulcers: These usually occur on the inside of the upper portion of your small intestine also known as the duodenum. Esophageal ulcers: These develop on the inside of the hollow tube or esophagus, which carries food from your throat to your stomach.
Symptoms Burning pain: This is the most common peptic ulcer symptom, and the pain is aggravated by stomach acid coming in contact with the ulcer. This type of pain flares up at night, can be felt from your navel to the breastbone, worsens when you are hungry and may disappear for a few days, only to return back again. Nausea and vomiting: If you vomit blood which appears dark red or black, or feel nauseous, it could be due to ulcers. Blood in stool: Dark blood in stools or stools that are black or tarry. Weight loss and appetite changes: Unexplained weight loss or increase and decrease in your appetite levels could be because of ulcers.
Causes There are various factors that could lead to the breakdown in the lining of your stomach, the small intestine or the esophagus. Causes include: Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori are bacteria responsible for stomach infection and inflammation. Over use of pain killers: Frequent use of aspirin, ibuprofen, and other anti-inflammatory drugs (risk associated with this behavior increases in women and people over the age of 60) Habits: Smoking, drinking too much alcohol can cause ulcers.
Treatment Depending on the cause of peptic ulcers, your doctor will decide on the course of treatment. For instance if the ulcers are caused by bacteria, then medication will be prescribed to kill the infection along with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to help reduce stomach acid. If there is no infection, only PPIs will be prescribed to reduce stomach acid. There may be certain side effects of this medication like diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, all of which will subside soon, but if it doesn’t then it is advisable to see your doctor immediately.

Complications If ulcers are left untreated they can worsen over time and lead to complications like: Perforation: An infection can be caused due to a hole formed in the lining of the stomach or small intestine. Sudden and severe abdominal pain is a symptom of the same. Internal bleeding: Bleeding ulcers can result in significant blood loss and thus require hospitalization. Signs of a bleeding ulcer include lightheadedness, dizziness, and black stools. Scar tissue: An injury can lead to development of thick tissue which makes it difficult for food to pass through the digestive tract. Symptoms of scar tissue include vomiting and weight loss.

These complications require surgery. Seek urgent medical attention if you experience: A sudden and severe pain in the abdomen. Feel faint, sweat excessively, or confused. Find blood in your vomit or stool. Your abdomen is hard to the touch.
Lifestyle changes You may find relief from the pain of a stomach ulcer if you make the following changes in your lifestyle: Eat right: Your diet has to be full of fruits, veggies and whole grains. It is necessary to eat vitamin-rich foods so as to help your ulcer heal faster. Change in medication: If you need to take pain killers on a regular basis, it is advisable to ask your doctor to give you another medication in its place in order to avoid inflammation. Bust the stress: Being stressed will worsen your condition. Try to be relaxed, enjoy your life and spend quality time with family and friends. Quit smoking: Smoking leads to an increase in stomach acid levels. Also it interferes with the lining in the stomach, thus making you more susceptible to ulcers. Limit or avoid alcohol: Drinking excessive alcohol can irritate and erode the mucous lining in your stomach and intestines, causing inflammation and bleeding. Frequently asked questions What are ulcers? Ulcers are open sores that can be on the external or internal surface of the body. They are usually caused by a break in the skin or inside lining of internal organs which does not heal. These ulcers range from small, painful sores in the mouth to bedsores and serious lesions of the stomach or intestine.

What are peptic ulcers? Peptic ulcers are open sores that usually develop on the inside lining of your stomach, upper portion of your intestine or the esophagus.
What are the types of peptic ulcers? There are three types of peptic ulcers: Gastric ulcers: These ulcers develop on the inside of your stomach. Duodenal ulcers: These usually occur on the inside of the upper portion of your small intestine also known as the duodenum. Esophageal ulcers: These develop on the inside of the hollow tube or esophagus, which carries food from your throat to your stomach.
What are the symptoms of peptic ulcers? Symptoms include: Burning pain: This is the most common peptic ulcer symptom, and the pain is aggravated by stomach acid coming in contact with the ulcer. This type of pain flares up at night, can be felt from your navel to the breastbone, worsens when you are hungry and may disappear for a few days, only to return back again. Nausea and vomiting: If you vomit blood which appears dark red or black, or feel nauseous, it could be due to ulcers. Blood in stool: Dark blood in stools or stools that are black or tarry. Weight loss and appetite changes: Unexplained weight loss or increase and decrease in your appetite levels could be because of ulcers.
What causes peptic ulcers? There are various factors that could lead to the breakdown in the lining of your stomach, the small intestine or the esophagus. Causes include: Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori are bacteria responsible for stomach infection and inflammation. Over use of pain killers: Frequent use of aspirin, ibuprofen, and other anti-inflammatory drugs (risk associated with this behavior increases in women and people over the age of 60) Habits: Smoking, drinking too much alcohol can cause ulcers. Other factors: Stomach cancer and radiation therapy are also one of the causes for ulcers.
Will eating spicy food or taking stress give me ulcers? Ulcers are caused by an infection with bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or because of pain medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen. Eating spicy food or taking stress is likely to worsen your condition, but it does not cause ulcers.

Will drinking alcohol and smoking increase discomfort due to ulcers? Smoking and drinking alcohol brings about degenerative changes in the body, which includes aggravating stomach ulcers. These habits are best avoided as they release harmful substances that irritate and damage the lining of the digestive tract, furthering the chances of ulcer development.

What are my treatment options? Depending on the cause of peptic ulcers, your doctor will decide on the course of treatment. For instance if the ulcers are caused by bacteria, then medication will be prescribed to kill the infection along with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to help reduce stomach acid. If there is no infection, only PPIs will be prescribed to reduce stomach acid. There may be certain side effects of this medication like diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, all of which will subside soon, but if it doesn’t then it is advisable to see your doctor immediately.

What kind of complications can arise if ulcers are left untreated? If ulcers are left untreated they can worsen over time and lead to complications like:
Perforation: An infection can be caused due to a hole formed in the lining of the stomach or small intestine. Sudden and severe abdominal pain is a symptom of the same. Internal bleeding: Bleeding ulcers can result in significant blood loss and thus require hospitalization. Signs of a bleeding ulcer include lightheadedness, dizziness, and black stools. Scar tissue: An injury can lead to development of thick tissue which makes it difficult for food to pass through the digestive tract. Symptoms of scar tissue include vomiting and weight loss. These complications require surgery. Seek urgent medical attention if you experience:
A sudden and severe pain in the abdomen. Feel faint, sweat excessively, or confused. Find blood in your vomit or stool. Your abdomen is hard to the touch.
What changes will I have to make in my lifestyle to get relief from stomach ulcers? You may find relief from the pain of a stomach ulcer if you make the following changes in your lifestyle:
Eat right: Your diet has to be full of fruits, veggies and whole grains. It is necessary to eat vitamin-rich foods so as to help your ulcer heal faster. Change in medication: If you need to take pain killers on a regular basis, it is advisable to ask your doctor to give you another medication in its place in order to avoid inflammation. Bust the stress: Being stressed will worsen your condition. Try to be relaxed, enjoy your life and spend quality time with family and friends. Quit smoking: Smoking leads to an increase in stomach acid levels. Also it interferes with the lining in the stomach, thus making you more susceptible to ulcers. Limit or avoid alcohol: Drinking excessive alcohol can irritate and erode the mucous lining in your stomach and intestines, causing inflammation and bleeding.
Thyroid cancer
The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland at the base of the throat. Thyroid gland produces two hormones (thyroxine {T-4} and triodothyronine {T-3}) that regulate metabolism, heart rate, body temperature, BP and rate of conversion of food to energy. Your thyroid gland also produces calcitonin — a hormone that helps in regulating the amount of calcium in your blood. Cancer in this gland is known as thyroid cancer.

Symptoms In the early stages, thyroid cancer does not show any signs or symptoms, but as the disease advances, certain symptoms can be identified, like:
You can feel a lump through the skin on your neck. There can be changes in your voice, hoarseness being one such change. You make experience difficulty breathing and/or swallowing. Experiencing pain in the throat. Presence of swollen lymph nodes in your neck.
Causes It is still unclear what exactly causes thyroid cancer, but like every other cancer, in this case too, genetically mutated abnormal cells in your thyroid start multiplying and unlike normal cells, do not die after a certain point of time, leading to the formation of a tumor. This tumor if malignant can spread to nearby tissues and can also spread to other parts of the body via the bloodstream.

Types of thyroid cancer Papillary thyroid cancer: This is the most common type of thyroid cancer and mostly affects people between 30-50 years of age, although there are chances for it to occur at any age. Papillary cancer arises from follicular cells, which produce and store thyroid hormones.
Follicular thyroid cancer: This type of thyroid cancer usually affects people above the age of 50 and arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid. Hurthle cell cancer is a rare and potentially more aggressive type of follicular thyroid cancer. Medullary thyroid cancer: This type of thyroid cancer occurs in the C cells of the thyroid. These C cells are responsible for producing the hormone calcitonin. If elevated levels of calcitonin in the blood are detected, then it can be a case of medullary thyroid cancer. Certain genetic syndromes increase the risk of medullary thyroid cancer, although this genetic link is uncommon. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: Although a rare type of thyroid cancer, Anaplastic thyroid cancer is rapidly growing cancer. This type is very difficult to treat and usually occurs in people above the age of 60. Thyroid lymphoma: This rare and quickly advancing form of thyroid cancer starts in the immune system cells of the thyroid. This type of thyroid cancer mostly affects women above the age of 60 years.

Risk factors
Certain factors that could increase your risk of developing thyroid cancer are as follows: Occurrence of thyroid cancer is seen to be higher in the females as compared to males. You are at a high risk of thyroid cancer if you are exposed to high levels of radiation, be it during a radiation treatment or due to leakage from a nuclear power plant or weapons testing. Certain genetic syndromes that could increase the risk of thyroid cancer include familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia and familial adenomatous polyposis.
Diagnosing thyroid cancer
Procedures to diagnose thyroid cancer include:
Physical examination of your thyroid gland by the physician. Your doctor will also ask you about family history, radiation exposures if any and/or other risk factors. Blood tests will be done to check if the thyroid gland is functioning normally. A fine-needle biopsy will be done and a sample of suspected thyroid tissue taken to be analyzed in the laboratory to check for cancer cells. Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or ultrasound imaging tests will be done to determine the exact location of the cancer and also to check if the cancer has spread to other part of the body. If you have a family history, your doctor may recommend you to undergo genetic testing to check for risk factors and diagnose medullary thyroid cancer.

Treatment Treatment of thyroid cancer depends upon the type and stage of the disease, your health condition and preferences. Some of the treatment options include:

Drawbacks of surgery like bleeding and infection, so also any damage to parathyroid glands during surgery can lead to a deficiency of calcium in blood. There are chances that the nerves connecting to the vocal cord resulting in hoarsensess, soft voice, vocal cord paralysis or cause difficulty in breathing. But these draw backs will be absent if a trained surgeon performs the surgery

Radioactive iodine therapy This therapy uses large doses of radioactive iodine post thyroidectomy to destroy any remaining thyroid tissue, as well as microscopic areas of thyroid cancer that could have been missed during surgery. Recurring thyroid cancer and cancer that may have spread through the body can also be treated with this therapy. This radioactive iodine, which comes in the form of a capsule or liquid to be swallowed, is primarily absorbed by thyroid and thyroid cancer cells, thereby lowering the risk of harming other cells in the body.

Thyroid hormone therapy Post surgery you will have to continue to take thyroid hormone medication for life. This medication supplies the hormone that the thyroid gland would have produced and also suppresses the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from your pituitary gland. If there are high TSH levels in your body, this could aggravate the remaining cancer cells to grow. Initially blood tests will be done to check your thyroid hormone levels and find a proper dosage of the medication. These blood tests will be done annually for life to keep the hormone levels in check.

Some side effects of this therapy are dry mouth and eyes, nausea, alteration in the sense of smell and taste and pain in the areas where thyroid cancer cells have spread. You will need to be careful about coming in contact with children and pregnant women so as to protect them from radiation. After the first few days of treatment, most of the radioactive iodine will leave your body through urine.

External radiation therapy A high energy beam is externally aimed at precise points on your body for a few minutes, five days a week for five weeks; with the machine moving around you, while you lie still on the table. This treatment option is selected when you cannot undergo surgery and if radioactive iodine therapy also does not show results. External radiation therapy may also be used in order to slow the growth of cancer which has spread to the bones.

Chemotherapy In this therapy chemicals are infused through a vein and these chemicals travel through your body, killing cancer cells. Although this therapy is not the most common choice of treatment for thyroid cancer, chemotherapy may be resorted to in cases where all other therapies fail to bring results.

Targeted drug therapy this drug therapy is used in patients with advanced stages of thyroid cancer and targets the signals that tell cancer cells to multiply. Targeted drugs used to treat thyroid cancer include:

Cabozantinib (Cometriq) Sorafenib (Nexavar) Vandetanib (Caprelsa)
FAQ
What is thyroid cancer? The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland at the base of the throat. Thyroid gland produces two hormones (thyroxine {T-4} and triiodothyronine {T-3}) that regulate metabolism, heart rate, body temperature, BP and rate of conversion of food to energy. Your thyroid gland also produces calcitonin — a hormone that helps in regulating the amount of calcium in your blood. Cancer in this gland is known as thyroid cancer.
What are the symptoms I should look out for? In the early stages, thyroid cancer does not show any signs or symptoms, but as the disease advances, certain symptoms can be identified, like:
You can feel a lump through the skin on your neck. There can be changes in your voice, hoarseness being one such change. You make experience difficulty breathing and/or swallowing. Experiencing pain in the throat. Presence of swollen lymph nodes in your neck.
What causes thyroid cancer? It is still unclear what exactly causes thyroid cancer, but like every other cancer, in this case too, genetically mutated abnormal cells in your thyroid start multiplying and unlike normal cells, do not die after a certain point of time, leading to the formation of a tumor. This tumor if malignant can spread to nearby tissues and can also spread to other parts of the body via the bloodstream.
What are the risk factors associated with thyroid cancer? Certain factors that could increase your risk of developing thyroid cancer are as follows:
Occurrence of thyroid cancer is seen to be higher in the females as compared to males. You are at a high risk of thyroid cancer if you are exposed to high levels of radiation, be it during a radiation treatment or due to leakage from a nuclear power plant or weapons testing. Certain genetic syndromes that could increase the risk of thyroid cancer include familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia and familial adenomatous polyposis.
How is thyroid cancer diagnosed? Procedures to diagnose thyroid cancer include:
Physical examination of your thyroid gland by the physician. Your doctor will also ask you about family history, radiation exposures if any and/or other risk factors. Blood tests will be done to check if the thyroid gland is functioning normally. A fine-needle biopsy will be done and a sample of suspected thyroid tissue taken to be analyzed in the laboratory to check for cancer cells. Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or ultrasound imaging tests will be done to determine the exact location of the cancer and also to check if the cancer has spread to other part of the body. If you have a family history, your doctor may recommend you to undergo genetic testing to check for risk factors and diagnose medullary thyroid cancer.
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Phone :+91 - 495 - 2777777
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